Lawrence LeDuc is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Toronto. His publications include The Politics of Direct Democracy, Comparing Democracies (with Richard G. Niemi and Pippa Norris), Dynasties and Interludes: Past and Present in Canadian Electoral Politics (with Jon H. Pammett, Judith I. McKenzie and André Turcotte), and Absent Mandate (with Harold D. Clarke, Jane Jenson and Jon H. Pammett) as well as articles on voting, elections and related topics in North American and European Political Science journals. He is a member of the editorial boards of Electoral Studies and the Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. In 2013, he was Visiting Senior Research Fellow with the Electoral Integrity Project at the University of Sydney. His current research deals with electoral reform, political participation, and direct democracy.